Articles, Chapters, and Research


“Review: The Snowden Reader,” H-Diplo listserv, forthcoming

“Expanding International Norms after the U.S.-China Cyber Theft Agreement,” World Political Review, January 2016

Posturing and Politics for Encryption, CSIS, February 2016

Managing Risk for the Internet of Things, CSIS February 2016

“Posturing and Politics for Encryption,” CSIS, February 2016

“Establish an International Precedent for Sharing Encrypted Data,” New York Times, February 2016

North Korea’s cyber capability; in The Conventional Military Balance on the Korean Peninsula; 2016 (forthcoming); IISS


The Role of Offensive Cyber Operations in NATO's Collective Defence, Tallinn Papers, NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence, March 2015.

U.S.-Japan Cooperation in Cybersecurity, CSIS, (October 2015).

“IRS data theft not surprising,” CNN, May 2015

“Hackers Don’t Want to Crash Stock Exchanges, They Want To Make Money On Them,” Washington Post, July 2015

“We Wuz Robbed,” CSIS, July 2015

“Moving Forward with the Obama-Xi Cybersecurity Agreement,” CSIS, October 2015

“Measuring Cybersecurity Success at the Summit,” CSIS, October 2015

“Next Steps on Sanctions,” CSIS, September 2015

Cyber Confidence Building and Diplomacy in Latin America and the Caribbean, Organization of American States, Spring 2015

“You Still have Zero Privacy: Get over it,” GE Reports, August 2015

“North Korea and Sony: Why So Much Doubt and What About Deterrence?” 38North, January 2015

“’Compelling Opponents to Our Will” The role of cyber warfare in Ukraine” NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence, forthcoming, 2015.


“Deterrence in the Cyber Age,” CSIS, November 2014

“2014 as the Year of Encryption: A (Very) Brief History of Encryption Policy,” CSIS

January 2014

“Liberty, Equality, Connectivity: Transatlantic Cybersecurity Norms,” CSIS, January 2014

“Factors influencing the advancement of China's military technology,” U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission, January 2014

“Idols of the Tribe,” University of Toronto Munk School of Global Affairs Cyber Dialogue, February 2104

“What do the Snowden Leaks Mean for Cyberspace and Governance?” CSIS, March 2014

“NIST Cybersecurity Framework: Trust but Verify,” CSIS April 2014

“Greatest Harm of Snowden Leaks Has Been to American Pride,” World Politics Review, April 2014

“Cybercrime is big money for hackers,” CNN, May 2014

“Chinese cyber-attacks 'not a parallel with NSA spying” Deutsche Welle, May 2014

“Hard Choices for Manned Spaceflight; America as Icarus,” CSIS May 2014

“National Perceptions of Cyber Threats,” Strategic Analysis, June 2014

“Net Losses: Estimating the Global Loss of Cybercrime,” McAfee, June 2014

“Cyber Tensions: Putting the Indictments for Cyber Espionage in Context,” American Chamber of Commerce, Shanghai, July 2014

“Space Exploration in a Changing National Environment,” CSIS, July 2014

“How the Internet Became a Focal Point for Espionage,” Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, August 2014

What’s Next in Cybersecurity? 1776, August 2014

“China in Space: Carrying Forward the Spirit of Two Bombs and One Satellite,” China Policy Institute, University of Nottingham, October 2014

“Heartbleed and the State of Cybersecurity,” American Foreign Policy Interests: The Journal of the National Committee on American Foreign Policy, November 2014

“The key to keeping cyberspace safe? An international accord,” Washington Post, October 2014

“Economic Warfare and Cyberspace,” Australian Strategic Policy Institute, November 2014

“Sovereignty and Governance, Observer Research Foundation, forthcoming


Don't Disqualify Brennan Over Interrogation,” US News and World Report, January 2013

How Should the United States Operate Within the Cyber Domain?”  Federation of American Scientists, January 2013

The Alternatives to Drone Strikes Are Worse,” US News and World Report, February 2013

In Defense of Stuxnet,” Institute for National Security Studies, February 2013

Five Myths About Chinese Hackers,” Washington Post, March 2013

Conflict and Negotiation in Cyberspace,” CSIS, February 2013

Raising the Bar for Cybersecurity,” CSIS, February 2013

“Iran and Cyber Attack,” Security Times (Munich Security Conference) February 2013

Who Is Whois? The DPRK and Cyber Attacks,” Foreign Policy, March 2013

Private Retaliation and Vigilante Justice in Cyberspace,” CSIS, May 2013

Estimating the Cost of Cybercrime and Cyber Espionage,” CSIS, May 2013

Thresholds of Uncertainty: Collective Defense and Cybersecurity,” World Politics Review, June 2013

Internet Governance: Inevitable Transitions,” The Centre for International Governance Innovation, October 2013

Low-level cyber attacks are common but truly damaging ones are rare,” Washington Post, October 2013

How Spying Is Just Like Sex,” Bloomberg View, October 2013

The Limited Utility of Deterrence,” Stimson Center,  October 2013

The Snowden Effect: Can We Undo the Damage to American Power?”  CSIS November 2013

“Rethinking Space Strategy,” CSIS, Forthcoming


“Stewardship, Security, and Cyberspace,” Munk School, February 2012 

 “Confidence Building and International Agreement in Cyber security,” United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), May 2012

Will America Defeat Itself? Ideas and National Power,” CSIS, May 2012

“Cybersecurity Legislation: Voluntary Failure,” Foreign Policy, August 2012

“Competition in Cyberspace: The Asian Context,” Lowy Institute, September 2012

“Ready Player One: Did the Pentagon just take over America's cybersecurity?,” Foreign Policy, October 2012

"Hubris and Self-Interest Rule," Room for Debate, New York Times, October 2012

"China's Economic Espionage: Why It Worked in the Past But It Won't in the Future," Foreign Affairs, November 2012

In Defense of Stuxnet,” Institute for National Security Studies,” December, 2012

“Problems of Cybersecurity," International Economy, Fall, 2012

‘The Limited Utility of Deterrence, Stimson Center, forthcoming


Cybersecurity After Two Years,” CSIS, January 2011

“Why Privacy and Cyber Security Clash,” in America’s Cyber Future: Security and Prosperity in the Information Age, Volume II, June 2011, Center for a New American Security

"Mining Bin Laden's computer trove," Newsday, May 2011

Book Review: Richard Stiennon, Surviving Cyberwar, Journal of Intelligence and National Security, 2011

“Cyber-Security and US-China Relations,” China-US Focus, July 2011

“Assessing the Cyber Threat,” Government Executive Magazine, August 2011

“Cyber Attacks, Real or Imagined, and Cyber War,” CSIS, July 2011

"Thresholds for Cyberwarfare," IEEE Security & Privacy, September 2011

“Cybersecurity and Cyberwarfare: Preliminary Assessment of National Doctrine and Organization,” United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), October 2011

“China in Space: Implication of the Space Module Docking,” China-US Focus November 2011

“Economic Espionage,” CSIS, December 2011

“Harnessing Leviathan - The International Context for Cybersecurity,” Aspen Institute


“Technology and Geopolitics,” International Security Forum Special Reports, January 2010

“Can Google Beat China,” New York Times, January 2010

“China’s Google Scandal,” Huffington Post, January 2010

“Google and China: ‘Top of the World, Ma....’," CSIS, March 2010

“To Protect the U.S. Against Cyberwar, Best Defense Is a Good Offense,” US News and World Report, March 2010

“Sovereignty and the Role of Government in Cyberspace,Brown Journal of International Affairs, Spring 2010

“The Cyber War has Not Begun, CSIS, March 2010

“A Note on the Laws of War in Cyberspace,” CSIS, April 2010

“A New Priority for Space,” Space News, May 2010

“Climate Change and Earth Observation,” CSIS, June 2010

“Multilateral Agreements to Constrain Cyberconflict,” Arms Control Today, June, 2010

“Cyberwarfare and its Impact on International Security,” United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA), Occasional Paper No. 19, June 2010

“Deterrence and Credible threats,” CSIS, June 2010  

“International Cybersecurity in Transition,” Office of the Director of National Intelligence, forthcoming

“North Korea: Speak Loudly and Carry a Small Stick,” 38North, September 2010

“Cyber War and Cyber Defense: We Depend on the Kindness of Strangers,” Ambassadors Review, September 2010

“Engagement and Sustainability in the 2010 National Space Policy,” CSIS, November 2010


“Space Security and Negotiations-Turn the Table,” Space News May 2009

“Read My Tweet on Iran,” CSIS Critical Questions, June 2009

“The “Korean Cyber Attacks’ and Their Implications for Cyber Conflict,” CSIS, October 2009

“The Fog of Cyber War,” International Security Forum Special Reports, November 2009

“Time to Enclose the Commons - International Agreement and Cyberspace,” International Affairs Forum, December 2009


“Regulating the Wealth of Nations: Foreign Investment and Sovereign Wealth,” The Policy Monitor, February 2008

“Satellite Shoot Down,” Google News, February, 2008

“Ignorance is Bliss,” Space News, March 2008

“Potential Global Strategic Catastrophes - Crises in Cyberspace” Geneva Center for Security Policy, November 2008

“Securing Cyberspace for the 44th Presidency: Report of the CSIS Commission on Cybersecurity,” CSIS, December 2008


“Foreign Influence on Software: Risks and Recourse,” CSIS, March 2007

“China’s Military Modernization and its Impact on the United States and Asia Pacific Region,” Report of the U.S. China Security Review Commission, December 2007

“Neither Mahan Nor Mitchell: National Security Space and Space Power, 1945-2000” in Space Power, National Defense University, forthcoming

“Between the U.S. and China: the Current Dynamics of Military Space,” Politique Etrangere, 2;2007 Institut Francais des Relations Internationales,

“Building an Information Technology Industry in China: National Strategy, Global Markets,” CSIS, May 2007

“IP and Development,” Intellectual Property Watch, May 2007

“China’s Military Modernization,” Quanxi, Summer 2007

“There’s No Such Thing As Cyberterror,” “The Atlantic Community,” July 30, 2007 

“Critical Questions: Domestic Surveillance, FISA, and Terrorism,” CSIS, November 7, 2007

“Innovation and Intellectual Property in the Knowledge Economy,” December, 2007

“Space and Power,” Space News, December 17, 2007


“The War on Hype,” San Francisco Chronicle, February, 2006

“Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Terrorism: Mass Destruction or Mass Annoyance?” in Transatlantic Homeland Security? Protecting Society in the Age of Catastrophic Terrorism, Routledge, 2006

“Waiting for Sputnik: Basic Research and Strategic Competition,” CSIS, March 2006

“Cyber Security and Critical Infrastructure Protection,” in Homeland Security: Protecting America’s Targets, Praeger, June 2006

“National Policies to Strengthen Innovation and Growth in North America,” CSIS, September 2006

“Cooperation in Space,” Space News, September 2006


“A Measured Response to Europe,” Space News, April 2005

“Beyond CFIUS,” Federal Communications Law Journal, Spring 2005

“The Limits of Arms Transfer Restraint,” Arms Control Today, November, 2005

“The Internet and Terrorism,” Proceedings of the 99th Annual Meeting of the American Society for International Law, 2005

“China as a Military Space Power,” George Washington University Space Policy Institute, (December, 2005)

“The Internet and Security,” in The Internet and Democracy, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 2005


“Beyond Evolution: Modernizing Air Traffic Management (with Anne Witkowsky), CSIS Press, May, 2004

“Galileo and GPS: From Competition to Cooperation,” in “Le Mani Sullo Spazio,” Limes Rivista Italiana Geopolitica, Fall 2004

“Netcentric Approaches to Port Security,” Stevens Institute of Technology, September 2004

“Globalization and National Security, CSIS Press, (November 2004)

“Aux Armes, Citoyens: Cyber Security and Regulation in the United States,” Telecommunications Policy, (Fall 2005)


 “The Place and Role of Technology in Framing the Balance of Power on the International Scene,” Fondation pour la Recherche Strategique, March 2003

International Cooperation in Cyber Security, CSIS, August 2003 

“Cyber Terror: Missing in Action,” in Knowledge, Technology & Policy, Fall, 2003

 “Spectrum Management for the 21st Century,” CSIS Press, October 2003

 “Critical Infrastructure Protection - With All Deliberate Speed,” George Mason University CIP Report, December 2003


“Assessing the Risks of Cyber Terrorism, Cyber War and Other Cyber Threats,” CSIS December 2002

“Export Controls/Dual Use Technology and Technology Transfer Issues,” Report of the U.S. China Security Review Commission, July, 2002

“Perils and Prospects for Internet Self Regulation,” Internet Society Proceedings, August 2002

“Surveillance and Security,” Internet Society Proceedings, August 2002

“Making America’s Homeland More Secure,” Insight Magazine, November 2002


 “Preserving America’s Strength in Satellite Technology,” CSIS Press, April 2001

“Technology and Security in the Twenty-First Century," CSIS Press, May 2001

 “Computer Exports and National Security in a Global Era: New Tools for a New Century” CSIS Press, June 2001

 “Strengthening Law Enforcement Capabilities for Counter-Terrorism” in To Prevail, CSIS Press, December 2001